{"maintainer": "Robert B. Jackson", "private": false, "maintainer_email": "jackson@duke.edu", "num_tags": 10, "id": "0fe57da8-f074-4aa7-b92e-0c9529cc7403", "metadata_created": "2014-05-14T22:56:51.410971", "metadata_modified": "2014-05-14T22:59:23.322912", "author": "Stephen G. Osborn", "state": "active", "creator_user_id": "d145d0e3-de8c-416e-9681-f2390bd5c946", "type": "dataset", "resources": [{"rating": null, "cache_last_updated": null, "revision_timestamp": "May 14, 2014, 18:58:30 (EDT)", "package_id": "0fe57da8-f074-4aa7-b92e-0c9529cc7403", "refSystem": "", "file": "", "owner": "admin", "datastore_active": false, "id": "8f0f6d90-7cea-40cf-a041-f48b9756c5a5", "size": 1032059, "categories_json": "[]", "scale": "", "state": "active", "locations_json": "[]", "last_modified": null, "hash": "", "description": "Proceedings for National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America by Stephen G. Osborn, Avner Vengosh, Nathaniel R. Warner, and Robert B. Jackson", "format": "PDF", "mimetype_inner": null, "folder_id": "root", "url_type": "upload", "recycle_removed": false, "mimetype": null, "cache_url": null, "typeofgep": "Not Applicable", "name": "Osbornetal_2011.pdf", "created": "2014-05-14T18:58:30.182367", "url": "https://edx.netl.doe.gov/storage/f/edx/2014/05/2014-05-14T22:57:23.775Z/ad452ca7-40d7-4c73-9a9b-24a2642ce711/osbornetal-2011.pdf", "owner_org": null, "license_type": "cc-by", "position": 0, "revision_id": "4fd86fe6-3f0b-b1b2-d203-84155e3b23c4", "resource_type": "file.upload"}], "num_resources": 1, "tags": [{"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Dissolved Gase", "id": "25ed4976-360d-4e29-9308-266bd3ce5ec7", "name": "Dissolved Gase"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Fluids", "id": "bf1c1a02-9e9f-4e80-b358-dfcde13a7b92", "name": "Fluids"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Gases", "id": "02e25d5b-3584-4f54-a182-ad25e6b26811", "name": "Gases"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Geochemistry", "id": "685da570-5449-4de6-9346-04351da14c66", "name": "Geochemistry"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Geology", "id": "b8d42824-d747-4c8e-92b6-6cf01b7b64fa", "name": "Geology"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Groundwater", "id": "7a3e8c09-1c2b-4b24-8e7b-a21d7d73de97", "name": "Groundwater"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Marcellus Shale", "id": "87801c80-3c70-45c1-abdc-f7c31d2ecc09", "name": "Marcellus Shale"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Methane", "id": "b5b4e04f-4e64-4a42-8dcb-958b762a1a61", "name": "Methane"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Task 9", "id": "5cf4c8dc-0983-4d52-8fc9-6a2cc65bb9bc", "name": "Task 9"}, {"vocabulary_id": null, "state": "active", "display_name": "Utica Shale", "id": "53245812-251a-4714-8f18-e0ee3e8928cf", "name": "Utica Shale"}], "title": "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing", "groups": [{"display_name": "Unconventional Resources ", "description": "This group contains information relevant to unconventional resources research, with a specific focus in the Marcellus shale formation. All members of the group can add data sets and relevant information to the group. Relevant information includes links to external websites, articles, and data. To become a member of the group, just click the \"follow\" button, and please add anything that you think would be a useful resource to others interested in unconventional resources and the Marcellus shale. ", "image_display_url": "https://edx.netl.doe.gov/groups/unconventional-resources/2019-01-30T10:30:36.608357.png", "title": "Unconventional Resources ", "id": "3e6be9de-3b5b-4f96-bc3d-f48c8b64cb18", "name": "unconventional-resources"}], "license_id": "cc-by", "package_reviewed": true, "name": "methane-contamination-of-drinking-water-accompanying-gas-well-drilling-and-hydraulic-fracturing", "isopen": true, "notes": "Directional drilling and hydraulic-fracturing technologies are dramatically increasing natural-gas extraction. In aquifers overlying the Marcellus and Utica shale formations of northeastern Pennsylvania and upstate New York, we document systematic evidence for methane contamination of drinking water associated with shalegas extraction. In active gas-extraction areas (one or more gas wells within 1 km), average and maximum methane concentrations in drinking-water wells increased with proximity to the nearest gas well and were 19.2 and 64 mg CH4 L\u22121 (n \u00bc 26), a potential explosion hazard; in contrast, dissolved methane samples in neighboring nonextraction sites (no gas wells within 1 km) within similar geologic formations and hydrogeologic regimes averaged only 1.1 mgL\u22121 (P < 0.05; n \u00bc 34). Average \u03b413C-CH4 values of dissolved methane in shallow groundwater were significantly less negative for active than for nonactive sites (\u221237 \u0001 7\u2030 and \u221254 \u0001 11\u2030, respectively; P < 0.0001). These \u03b413C-CH4 data, coupled with the ratios of methane-to-higher-chain hydrocarbons, and \u03b42H-CH4 values, are consistent with deeper thermogenic methane sources such as the Marcellus and Utica shales at the active sites and matched gas geochemistry from gas wells nearby. In contrast, lower-concentration samples from shallow groundwater at nonactive sites had isotopic signatures reflecting a more biogenic or mixed biogenic/ thermogenic methane source. We found no evidence for contamination of drinking-water samples with deep saline brines or fracturing fluids. We conclude that greater stewardship, data, and\u2014possibly\u2014regulation are needed to ensure the sustainable future of shale-gas extraction and to improve public confidence in its use.", "license_title": "Creative Commons Attribution", "extras": [{"key": "netl_product", "value": "no"}, {"key": "organization", "value": "National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America"}, {"key": "organization_acronym", "value": "PNAS"}, {"key": "spatial", "value": "{ \"type\":\"MultiPolygon\",\"coordinates\": [[[[-74.23694, 40.506004], [-79.76166, 42.003105], [-79.76324, 42.267326], [-79.06224, 43.268215], [-75.328865, 44.81063], [-74.96847, 44.948624], [-74.73611, 44.992916], [-73.34473, 45.006138], [-71.86999, 41.07451], [-71.9187, 41.030575], [-72.521164, 40.81504], [-73.03094, 40.67134], [-73.249054, 40.625423], [-74.19364, 40.510563], [-74.23694, 40.506004]], [[-79.39661, 39.719315], [-80.429085, 39.71984], [-80.52427, 39.72121], [-80.52605, 40.16252], [-80.523926, 41.495102], [-80.522644, 41.850777], [-80.52059, 41.986874], [-79.76324, 42.267326], [-75.38281, 41.998356], [-75.34566, 41.992844], [-75.12475, 41.849182], [-75.07984, 41.814148], [-74.74004, 41.42206], [-74.70528, 41.37506], [-74.700066, 41.350574], [-74.72548, 40.149307], [-74.74629, 40.12436], [-75.1429, 39.881603], [-75.25374, 39.84554], [-75.42047, 39.798985], [-75.774925, 39.724552], [-75.79109, 39.723866], [-76.13922, 39.72223], [-76.56983, 39.720264], [-77.47579, 39.719624], [-79.39661, 39.719315]]]]}"}], "license_url": "http://www.opendefinition.org/licenses/cc-by", "revision_id": "8e3a3141-36f3-4a21-a248-5f2b1c246a94"}