Publications

Find a detailed list of NRAP Publications at each of the category links below:

 

WELLBORE AND SEAL INTEGRITY

2017

Carey, J. W.; Harp, D.; Lewis, K.; Chu, S.; Kelkar, S. A Reduced-Order Model for Wellbore Permeability Induced by Geomechanical Damage; NRAP-TRS-III-006-2017; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2017; p 24.

Carroll, S.; Walsh, S.; Mason, H.; Du Frane, W. Chemical – Mechanical – Transport Model for Wellbore Permeability for CO2 Storage; NRAP-TRS-III-009-2017; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2017; p 16.

Jordan, P. D.; Wagoner, J. L. Characterizing Construction of Existing Wells to a CO2 Storage Target: The Kimberlina Site, California; NRAP-TRS-III-001-2017; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2017; p 32.

Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C. M. Reduced-Order Model for Leakage through an Open Wellbore from the Reservoir due to CO2 Injection; NRAP-TRS-III-008-2017; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2017; p 20.

Varre, S.; Gondle, R.; Siriwardane, H.; Bromhal, G.; Sams, N. Influence of Geochemical Processes on the Geomechanical Responses of Overburden Strata during CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers; NRAP-TRS-III-013-2017; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2017; p 72.

Verba, C.; Reed, M.; Ideker, J.; O'Connor, W. Compressive and Tensile Strength of Class H Cement Exposed to High Pressure and Temperature Storage Conditions; NRAP-TRS-III-004-2017; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Albany, OR, 2017; p 32.

White, J. A.; Lu, C.; Chiaramonte, L. A Reduced-Order Model of Fault Leakage for Second-Generation Toolset; NRAP-TRS-III-012-2017; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2017; p 16.

2016

Brunet, J. L.; Li, L.; Karpyn, Z. T.; Huerta, N. Fracture Opening or Self-Sealing: Critical Residence Time as a Unifying Parameter for Cement-CO2-Brine Interactions. Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2016, 47, 25-37.

Carroll, S. A.; Bianchi, M.; Mansoor, K.; Zheng, L.; Sun, Y.; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J. Reduced-Order Model for Estimating Impacts from CO2 Storage Leakage to Alluvium Aquifers: Third-Generation Combined Physical and Chemical Processes; NRAP-TRS-II-009-2016; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2016; p 44.

Carroll, S.; Carey, J. W.; Dzombak, D.; Huerta, N. J.; Li, L.; Richard, T.; Um, W.; Walsh, S. D. C.; Zhang, L. Review: Role of Chemistry, Mechanics, and Transport on Well Integrity in CO2 Storage Environments. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2016, 49, 149-160.

Harp, D. R.; Pawar, R.; Carey, J. W.; Gable, C. W. Reduced Order Models of Transient Wellbore Leakage at Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2016, 45, 150–162.

Huerta, N.; Hesse, M. A.; Bryant, S. L.; Strazisar, B. R.; Lopano, C. Reactive Transport of CO2-Saturated Water in a Cement Fracture: Application to Wellbore Leakage during Geologic CO2 Storage. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2016, 44, 276-289.

Huerta; N. J.; Carey, J. W.; Carroll, S.; Dzombak, D.; Harp, D.; Li, L.; Richard, T.; Walsh, S. D. C.; Um, W.; Zhang, L. 2 Storage Operations: Current Understanding and Open Questions; NRAP-TRS-I-007-2016; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Albany, OR, 2016; p 48.

Huerta, N. J.; Vasylkivska, V. S. Well Leakage Analysis Tool (WLAT) User’s Manual, Version: 2016.11-1.0.0.3; NRAP-TRS-III-011-2016; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Albany, OR, 2016; p 44.

Jordan, P.; Carey, J. W. Steam Blowouts in California Oil and Gas District 4: Comparison of the Roles of Initial Defects versus Well Aging and Implications for Well Blowouts in Geologic Carbon Storage Projects. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2016, 51, 36-47.

Kabilan S.; Um, W.; Jung, H. B.; Kuprat A.; Beck A.; Varga T.; Fernandez C.; Brown, C. F. A Numerical Study of Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement Fractures after Geomechanical and Geochemical Processes; PNNL-SA-114327; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 2016.

Lindner, E. NRAP Seal Barrier Reduced-Order Model (NSealR) Tool User’s Manual, Version: 2016.04-13.2.1; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV, 2016.

Nguyen, B. N.; Hou, J.; Bacon, D. H.; Murray, C. J.; White, M. D. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2016, 46, 100-115.

Nguyen, B. N.; Hou, Z.; Bacon, D. H.; White, M. D. A Multiscale Hydro-Geochemical-Mechanical Approach to Analyze Faulted CO2 Reservoirs. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2016. [Online] 1 AUG 2016.

Nguyen, B. N.; Hou, Z.; Last, G. V.; Bacon, D. H. Three-dimensional Analysis of Faulted CO2 Reservoirs Using an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka Approach to Rock Elastic Properties and Fault Permeability. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 2016, 6, 8.

Um, W.; Rod, K. A.; Jung, H. B.; Brown, C. F. Geochemical Alteration of Wellbore Cement by CO2 or CO2 + H2S Reaction during Long-Term Carbon Storage. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2016, 6, 1-4.

Um, W.; Rod, K.; Jung, H. B.; Brown, C. Geochemical Alteration of Wellbore Cement by CO2 or CO2+H2S Reaction during Long-Term Carbon Storage; PNNL-SA-114327; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 2016.

Zhang, L.; Soong, Y.; Dilmore, R. Investigation on Porosity and Permeability Change of Mount Simon Sandstone (Knox County, IN, USA) under Geological CO2 Sequestration Conditions: A Numerical Simulation Approach. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2016, 6, 574-587.

Zhang, L.; Dilmore, R.; Bromhal, G. Effect of Outer Boundary Condition, Reservoir Size, and CO2 Effective Permeability on Pressure and CO2 Saturation Predictions under Carbon Sequestration Conditions. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2016, 6, 546-560.

2015

Balashov, V. N.; Guthrie, G. D.; Lopano, C. L.; Hakala, J. A.; Brantley, S. L. Reaction and Diffusion at the Reservoir/Shale Interface during CO2 Storage: Impact of Geochemical Kinetics. Applied Geochemistry 2015, 61, 19–131.

Cao, P.; Karpyn, Z. T.; Li, L. Self-healing of Cement Fractures under Dynamic Flow of CO2-rich Brine. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2015, 51, 4684–4701.

Guthrie, G. D., Jr.; Carey, J. W. A Thermodynamic and Kinetic Model for Paste–aggregate Interactions and the Alkali–silica Reaction. Cement and Concrete Research 2015, 76, 107–120.

Jordan, A. B.; Stauffer, P. H.; Harp, D.; Carey, J. W.; Pawar, R. J. A Response Surface Model to Predict CO2 and Brine Leakage along Cemented Wellbores. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2015, 33, 27–39.

Lindner, E. NSealR—A User’s Guide, Third-Generation; NRAP-TRS-III-001-2015; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2015; p 116.

Zhang, L.; Dzombak, D. A.; Kutchko B. G. Wellbore Cement Integrity under Geologic Carbon Sequestration Conditions. In: Novel Materials for CO2 Mitigation Technology, Shi F. and Morreale B. (ed.), United States of America: Elsevier, 2015.

Zhang, L.; Dzombak, D. A.; Kutchko B. G. Wellbore Cement Integrity under Geologic Carbon Sequestration Conditions. Novel Materials for Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Technology 2015, 333-362.

2014

Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Brown, D.; Pawar, R. Geomechanical Behavior of Caprock and Cement: Plasticity in Hydrodynamic Seals. Energy Procedia 2014, 63, 5671–5679.

Crandall, D.; Bromhal, G. Characterization of Experimental Fracture Alteration and Fluid Flow in Fractured Natural Seals; NRAP-TRS-III-003-2014; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2014; p 48.

Harp, D. R.; Pawar, R.; Gale, C. W. Numerical Modeling of Cemented Wellbore Leakage from Storage Reservoirs with Secondary Capture due to Thief Zones. Energy Procedia 2014, 63, 3532–3543.

Huerta, N.; Strazisar, B. R.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A. Time-Dependent Fluid Migration from a Storage Formation via Leaky Wells. Energy Procedia 2014, 63, 5724–5736.

Jung, H. B.; Kabilan, S.; Carson, J. P.; Kuprat, A. P.; Um, W.; Martin, P.; Dahl, M.; Kafemtzis, T.; Varga, T.; Stephens, S.; Arey, B.; Carroll, K. C.; Bonneville, A. H. R.; Fernandez, C. A. Wellbore Cement Fracture Evolution at the Cement-Basalt Caprock Interface during Geologic Carbon Sequestration. Applied Geochemistry 2014, 47, 1–16.

Kelkar, S.; Carey, J. W.; Dempsey, D.; Lewis, K. Integrity of Pre-existing Wellbores in Geological Sequestration of CO2 – Assessment Using a Coupled Geomechanics-fluid Flow Model. Energy Procedia 2014, 63, 5737–5748.

Lindner, E. NSealR—A Brief User’s Guide; NRAP-TRS-III-001-2014; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2014; p 92.

Mason, H. E.; Walsh, S. D. C.; DuFrane, W.; Carroll, S. A. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 12, 7094-7100.

Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C. M. T2Well - An Integrated Wellbore–Reservoir Simulator. Computers & Geosciences 2014, 65, 46–55.

Pan, P.; Rutqvist, J.; Feng, X.; Yan, F. TOUGH–RDCA Modeling of Multiple Fracture Interactions in Caprock during CO2 Injection into a Deep Brine Aquifer. Computers & Geosciences 2014, 65, 24–36.

Um, W.; Jung, H.; Kabilan, S.; Fernandez, C. A.; Brown, C. F. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures. Energy Procedia 2014, 63, 5808–5812.

Um, W.; Jung, H.; Kabilan, S.; Suh, D.; Fernandez, C. A. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures: Data Information for Wellbore Reduced Order Model; PNNL-23148; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Richland, WA, 2014.

Verba, C.; O'Connor, W. O.; Rush, G.; Palandri, J.; Reed, M.; Ideker, J. Geochemical Alteration of Simulated Wellbores of CO2 Injection Sites within the Illinois and Pasco Basins. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2014, 23, 119–134.

Vilarrasa, V.; Olivella, S.; Carrera, J.; Rutqvist, J. Long Term Impacts of Cold CO2 Injection on the Caprock Integrity. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2014, 24, 1–13.

Walsh, S. D. C.; Mason, H. E.; Du Frane, W. L.; Carroll, S. A. Mechanical and Hydraulic Coupling in Cement-Caprock Interfaces Exposed to Carbonated Brine. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2014, 25, 109–120.

Walsh, S. D. C.; Du Frane, W. L.; Mason, H. E.; DuFrane, W. L.; Carroll, S. A. Experimental Calibration of a Numerical Model Describing the Alteration of Cement/Caprock Interfaces by Carbonated Brine. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2014, 22, 176-188.

Zhang, L.; Dzombak, D. A.; Nakles, D.V. ; NRAP-TRS-III-004-2014; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2014; p 44.

Zhang, L.; Dzombak, D. A.; Nakles, D. V.; Hawthorne, S. B.; Miller, D. J.; Kutchko, B.; Lopano, C.; Strazisar, B. Effect of Exposure Environment on the Interactions between Acid Gas (H2S and CO2) and Pozzolan-amended Wellbore Cement under Acid Gas Co-sequestration Conditions. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2014, 27, 309–318.

Zhang, L.; Dzombak, D. A.; Nakles, D. V.; Hawthorne, S. B.; Miller, D. J.; Kutchko, B. G.; Lopano. C. L.; Strazisar, B. R. Rate of H2S and CO2 Attack on Pozzolan-amended Class H Well Cement under Geologic Sequestration Conditions. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2014, 27, 299–308.

Zhang, L.; Theregowda, R. B.; Small, M. J. Statistical Model for Scaling and Corrosion Potentials of Cooling-System Source Waters. Environmental Engineering Science 2014, 31, 570–581.

Zhang, S.; DePaolo, D. J.; Zheng, L.; Mayer, B. Reactive Transport Modeling of Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation in a Multi-phase Multi-component System during Carbon Sequestration. Energy Procedia 2014, 63, 3821–3832.

2013

Cao, P.; Karpyn, Z. T.; Li, L. Dynamic Changes in Wellbore Cement Integrity due to Geochemical Reactions in CO2-rich Environments. Water Resources Research 2013, 49, 4465–4475.

Carey, J. W.; Lewis, K.; Kelkar, S.; Zyvoloski, G. A. Geomechanical Behavior of Wells in Geologic Sequestration. Energy Procedia 2013, 37, 5642 – 5652.

Carey, J. W. Geochemistry of Wellbore Integrity in CO2 Sequestration: Portland Cement-steel-brine-CO2 Interactions. In DePaolo, D. J., Cole, D., Navrotsky, A., and Bourg, I., editors, Geochemistry of Geologic CO2 Sequestration, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 2013, 77, chapter 15, pages 505–539. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC.

Houseworth, J.; Wainwright, H.; Birkholzer, J. Assessment of Decoupling Wellbore Leakage from Reservoir Flow in Reduced-Order Models; NRAP-TRS-III-001-2013; NRAP Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Morgantown, WV, 2013; p 60.

Huerta, N. J.; Hesse, M. A.; Bryant, S. L.; Strazisar, B.R; Lopano, C. L. Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement Core: Implications for Time-Dependent Wellbore Leakage. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47, 269-275.

Hur, T.; Baltrus, J. P.; Howard, B. H.; Harbert, W. P.; Romanov, V. N. Carbonate Formation in Wyoming Montmorillonite under High Pressure Carbon Dioxide. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2013, 13, 149–155.

Jung, H. B.; Um, W. Experimental Study of Potential Wellbore Cement Carbonation by Various Phases of Carbon Dioxide during Geologic Carbon Sequestration. Applied Geochemistry 2013, 35, 161–172.

Jung, H. B.; Um, W.; Cantrell, K. J. Effect of Oxygen Co-injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration. Chemical Geology 2013, 354, 1–14.

Mason, H. E.; DuFrane, W. L.; Walsh, S.; Dai, Z.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Carroll, S. Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Wellbore Cement Altered by CO2-Rich Brine Using a Multi-Analytical Approach. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47, 1745–1752.

Newell, D. L.; Carey, W. J. Experimental Evaluation of Wellbore Integrity along the Cement-rock Boundary. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47, 276–282.

Nicot, J. P.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Houseworth, J. E.; Choi, J. W. Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways at the Cranfield, MS, USA, CO2 Sequestration Site. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2013, 18, 388-400.

Oldenburg, C. M.; Doughty, C.; Spycher, N. The Role of CO2 in CH4 Exsolution from Deep Brine: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration. Greenhouse Gases: Sciences and Technology 2013, 3, 359-377.

Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L. Porous Media Compressed-Air Energy Storage (PM-CAES): Theory and Simulation of the Coupled Wellbore–Reservoir System. Transport in Porous Media 2013, 97, 201-221.

Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L. Utilization of CO2 as Cushion Gas for Porous Media Compressed Air Energy Storage. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2013, 3, 124-135.

Walsh, S. D. C.; Du Frane, W. L.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S. A. Permeability of Wellbore-Cement Fractures Following Degradation by Carbonated Brines. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 2013, 46, 455–464.

Zhang, L.; Dzombak, D. A.; Nakles, D.; Brunet, J.; Li, L. Reactive Transport Modeling of Interactions between Acid Gas (CO2 + H2S) and Pozzolan-amended Wellbore Cement under Geologic Carbon Sequestration Conditions. Energy & Fuels 2013, 27, 6921–6937.

Zhang, L.; Dzombak, D. A.; Nakles, D. V.; Hawthorne, S. B.; Miller, D. J.; Kutchko, B. G.; Lopano. C. L.; Strazisar, B. R. Characterization of Pozzolan-Amended Wellbore Cement Exposed to CO2 and H2S Gas Mixtures under Geologic Carbon Sequestration Conditions. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2013, 19, 358–368.

2012

Houseworth, J.; Jordan, P. Potential for Environmental Impact due to Acid Gas Leakage from Wellbores at EOR Injection Sites near Zama Lake, Alberta: Response to D.M. LeNeveu. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2012, 2, 314–319.

Hu, L.; Pan, L.; Zhang, K. Modeling Brine Leakage to Shallow Aquifer through an Open Wellbore using T2WELL/ECO2N. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2012, 9, 393-401.

Jung, H. B.; Jansik, D. P.; Um, W. Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic Sequestration Conditions Using X-ray Computed Microtomography. Environmental Science & Technology 2012, 47, 283–289.

Jung, J. W.; Wan, J. Supercritical CO2 and Ionic Strength Effects on Wettability of Silica Surfaces: Equilibrium Contact Angle Measurements. Energy Fuels 2012, 26, 6053–6059.

Oldenburg, C. M.; Doughty, C.; Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P. F. Simulations of Long-column Flow Experiments Related to Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Effects of Outer Wall Boundary Condition on Upward Flow and Formation of Liquid CO2. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2012, 2, 279–303.

Rutqvist, J. The Geomechanics of CO2 Storage in Deep Sedimentary Formations. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2012, 30, 525–551.

Um, W.; Jung, H. B. Results of Laboratory Scale Fracture Tests on Rock and Cement Interfaces; PNNL- 21446; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Richland, WA, 2012.

Walsh, S. D. C.; Du Frane, W. L.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S. A. Permeability of Welbore-cement Fractures Following Degradation by Carbonated Brines. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 2012, 45, 455–464.

2011

Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J. Modeling of Coupled Deformation and Permeability Evolution during Fault Reactivation Induced by Deep Underground Injection of CO2. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2011, 5, 336–346.

Carey, J. W.; Lichtner, P. C. Computational Studies of Two-Phase Cement-CO2-Brine Interaction in Wellbore Environments. SPE Journal 2011, 16, 940–948.

Han, J.; Carey, J. W.; Zhang, J. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Corrosion of Mild Steel in CO2-saturated Brines. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 2011, 41, 741–749.

Han, J.; Carey, J. W.; Zhang, J. A Coupled Electrochemical-geochemical Model of Corrosion for Mild Steel in High-pressure CO2-saline Environments. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2011, 5, 777–787.

Han, J.; Carey, J. W.; Zhang, J. Effect of Bicarbonate on Corrosion of Carbon Steel in CO2 Saturated Brines. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2011, 5, 1680–1683.

Pan, L. T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water; LBNL LBNL-4291E; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2011.

Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Pruess, K.; Wu, Y. Transient CO2 Leakage and Injection in Wellbore-Reservoir Systems for Geologic Carbon Sequestration. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2011, 1, 335–350.

Pan, L.; Webb, S. W.; Oldenburg, C. M. Analytical Solution for Two-phase Flow in a Wellbore Using the Drift-flux Model. Advances in Water Resources 2011, 34, 1656–1665.

Tao, Q.; Checkai, D.; Huerta, N.; Bryant, S. L. An Improved Model to Forecast CO2 Leakage Rates Along a Wellbore. Energy Procedia 2011, 538-391.

Um, W.; Jung, H. B.; Martin, P. F.; McGrail, B. P. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reactio; PNNL-20843; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Richland, WA, 2011.

2010

Carey, J. W.; Svec, R.; Grigg, R.; Zhang, J.; Crow, W. Experimental Investigation of Wellbore Integrity and CO2-brine Flow along the Casing-cement Microannulus. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2010, 4, 272–282.

Crandall, D.; Bromhal, G.; Karpyn, Z. T. Numerical Simulations Examining the Relationship between Wall-Roughness and Fluid Flow in Rock Fractures. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 2010, 47, 784–796.

2009

Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Wu, Y. S.; Pruess, K. Wellbore Flow Model for Carbon Dioxide and Brine. Energy Procedia 2009, 1, 71–78.

Wigand, M.; Kaszuba, J. P.; Carey, J. W.; Hollis, W. K. Geochemical Effects of CO2 Sequestration on Fractured Wellbore Cement at the Cement/caprock Interface. Chemical Geology 2009, 265, 122–133.

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