NRAP is leveraging research simulators that have been developed at each of the national labs for simulating the fluid flow and related behavior in subsurface media. These simulators predict detailed physics and are used to develop rigorous predictions of system behavior for a range of parameters; these predictions are subsequently used in the development of reduced-order models. In addition, NRAP has utilized a commercial simulator for some reservoir models. NRAP’s goal is to provide flexibility in the choice of process simulator from which the reduced-order models are built. Details on the availability of each of these simulators can be found on the respective websites.

CO2-PENS (Predicting Engineered Natural Systems) is a system model platform developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. CO2-PENS has been adapted by NRAP to conduct integrated assessment modeling for potential impacts due to release of CO2 to the atmosphere or to the leakage of CO2 and/or brine into groundwater.

FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. FEHM is used to simulate groundwater and contaminant flow and transport in deep and shallow, fractured and un-fractured porous media.

GEM is a continuum-scale commercial simulator developed by Computer Modelling Group (CMG). GEM is a general compositional reservoir simulator for simulating a variety of processes, including injection processes such as miscible CO2 floods.

NFFLOW (and its companion software package FRACGEN) is a discrete-fracture flow simulator developed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. NFFLOW is used simulate gas flow and drainage in fractured reservoirs with a discrete, irregular, stochastic fracture network using a large number of fractures.

NUFT-C (Nonisothermal, Unsaturated Flow and Transport with Chemistry) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NUFT-C is used to simulate coupled fluid movement (multiple liquids and gas) and chemical reactions in saturated or unsaturated porous media.

PSUADE (Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration) is a software toolkit to facilitate the use of output from detailed process models to quantify uncertainty; it was developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

RSQSim is an earthquake simulator developed by Dieterich and coworkers at University of California at Riverside. RSQSim uses rate- and state-dependent friction to simulate slip events. NRAP has adapted this code to address issues associated with potential slip events generated by injection-induced pressure perturbations.

STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. STOMP is used to simulate subsurface flow and transport and complements other analytical capabilities developed by PNNL’s Hydrology Group.

SYNHAZ is an earthquake simulator developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SYNHAZ uses empirical Green’s functions to propagate ground motion (e.g., generated by a slip event) through overlying strata to Earth’s surface.

T2WELL-ECO2N is a version of LBNL’s TOUGH2 that includes a coupled wellbore-flow simulator based on the drift flux model. T2WELL also includes the ECO2N equation of state module to describe single and two-phase flow of CO2-water-NaCl mixtures.

TOUGH2 (Transport Of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TOUGH2 is used to simulate the coupled transport of water, vapor, non-condensible gas, and heat in porous and fractured media.