CO2-PENS (Predicting Engineered Natural Systems) is a system model platform developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. CO2-PENS has been adapted by NRAP to conduct integrated assessment modeling for potential impacts due to release of CO2 to the atmosphere or to the leakage of CO2 and/or brine into groundwater. http://ees.lanl.gov/ees16/co2pens.shtml
FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. FEHM is used to simulate groundwater and contaminant flow and transport in deep and shallow, fractured and un-fractured porous media. https://fehm.lanl.gov/
GEM is a continuum-scale commercial simulator developed by Computer Modelling Group (CMG). GEM is a general compositional reservoir simulator for simulating a variety of processes, including injection processes such as miscible CO2 floods. https://www.cmgl.ca/gem
NFFLOW (and its companion software package FRACGEN) is a discrete-fracture flow simulator developed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. NFFLOW is used simulate gas flow and drainage in fractured reservoirs with a discrete, irregular, stochastic fracture network using a large number of fractures. https://netl.doe.gov/sites/default/files/rdfactsheet/R-D057_1.pdf
NUFT-C (Nonisothermal, Unsaturated Flow and Transport with Chemistry) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NUFT-C is used to simulate coupled fluid movement (multiple liquids and gas) and chemical reactions in saturated or unsaturated porous media. https://wci.llnl.gov/codes/cafda/nuft_c/index.html
PSUADE (Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration) is a software toolkit to facilitate the use of output from detailed process models to quantify uncertainty; it was developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. https://computation.llnl.gov/casc/uncertainty_quantification/
RSQSim is an earthquake simulator developed by Dieterich and coworkers at University of California at Riverside. RSQSim uses rate- and state-dependent friction to simulate slip events. NRAP has adapted this code to address issues associated with potential slip events generated by injection-induced pressure perturbations.
STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. STOMP is used to simulate subsurface flow and transport and complements other analytical capabilities developed by PNNL’s Hydrology Group. http://stomp.pnnl.gov/
SYNHAZ is an earthquake simulator developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SYNHAZ uses empirical Green’s functions to propagate ground motion (e.g., generated by a slip event) through overlying strata to Earth’s surface.
T2WELL-ECO2N is a version of LBNL’s TOUGH2 that includes a coupled wellbore-flow simulator based on the drift flux model. T2WELL also includes the ECO2N equation of state module to describe single and two-phase flow of CO2-water-NaCl mixtures. http://esd.lbl.gov/research/projects/tough/licensing/othertough.html
TOUGH2 (Transport Of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat) is a continuum-scale simulator developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TOUGH2 is used to simulate the coupled transport of water, vapor, non-condensible gas, and heat in porous and fractured media. http://esd.lbl.gov/research/projects/tough/